VANADIUM REDOX FLOW BATTERIES
Protean and its Korean partner, DST Co Ltd, own 100% of KORID Energy Ltd. KORID is developing proprietary vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) energy storage technology.
Protean and DST, via KORID Energy, are developing VRFB technology known as V-KOR. V-KOR is a commercial ready rechargable flow battery technology that stores energy for longer and with a greater life expectancy than existing battery solutions.

V-KOR systems are fully scalable with built solutions from 2kW to 20MW and larger to suit customer specific requirements. V-KOR has been developed over the last ten years and the technology is patent protected.

Protean has undertaken a testing program carried out on both the 5kW and 25kW V-KOR vanadium battery units. Over 3,000 cycles have now been tested on the 5kW stack, representing in excess of 9years of full daily cycles for a typical solar photovoltaic (PV) application. Additionally, over1,000 cycles (3 years of full daily cycles) of testing have been completed on the 25kW stack. Both units have reported no significant degradation in performance.

The completion of this successful testing is considered to be representative of "in use" battery performance and supports V-KOR's progression towards initial commercialisation via customer orders. Both V-KOR units have been independently tested by Korea Conformity Laboratories (KCL), a leading state-of-the-art national testing laboratory established over 40 years ago.
KORID's VRFB technology is a modular 'plug and play' containerised utility scale storage solution. The composition of KORID's V-KOR VRFB is as follows:

1. Electrolyte Tanks
2. Cell Stacks / Membrane
3. Pumps and other balance of plant equipment
4. Power Conversion System (including control system, communications, inverter, electrical wiring)
5. Standard size shipping container

How it works
VRFB uses a circulating electrolyte solution of vanadium pentoxide to store the charge in tanks
1
V-KOR Electrolyte Tank (+VE)
Energy is stored in tanks as charged vanadium liquid electrolyte
2
V-KOR Power Conditioning System
Sends electricity to grid when demand is needed. Process is reversed and solar energy or other energy sources (wind etc) recharge battery when demand is low
3
V-KOR Cell Stack
Charges are transferred across the cell stacks/membrane form one liquid to the other, depending on whether the battery is storing or releasing electricity
4
V-KOR Electrolyte Tank (-VE)
When electrolyte has released energy, it must be recharged
Composition of a Standard VRFB
The V-KOR stack technology is aimed at improving battery performance and lowering manufacturing costs compared to conventional VRFB technology.

Each VRFB stack is made up of a series of multi-cell frames. Cell frames are stacked up in repeating series to form a number of cells within the overall battery stack. Four stack sizes of batteries have been developed to date by KORID, including a 2.5kW, 5kW, 10kW and 25kW, with development and testing of a new stack system up to 50kW taking place.

V-KOR battery solutions are built to order for commercial, industrial and grid scale applications. The technology is expected to drive the adoption of clean energy solutions.

An important attribute of VRFB systems is that their energy capacity is independent of the power rating, allowing them to be designed for highly specific energy and power requirements and making them well suited to applications with large energy capacity specifications.
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